Semigraphs and their applications
Graph theory studies graphs and mathematical structures that model pairwise relations between objects. Semigraph is a generalization of the graph. Graph theory has applications in the fields like a computer network, the flow of computation, networks of communication, and the shortest path on the road or a network; Google Maps follow the principles of graph theory, and semigraphs seem to be a better representation of the same. Like in the case of graphs, a complete semigraph is a semigraph in which every two vertices are adjacent to each other. The addition of graphs is a well-studied operation, resulting in a new graph with more vertices and edges. The operation of adding vertices to graphs is different from the addition of graphs but also defines a new graph with more vertices and edges.
Shetty, Jyoti Dr, "Semigraphs and their applications" (2022). Basic Science Collection. 11.