Date of Award

Winter 8-1-2018

Document Type


Degree Name

M.Sc. Nursing


Department of Obstetric & Gynecological Nursing

First Advisor

Dr. Judith A Noronha

Second Advisor

Mrs. Celastin Susan


ABSTRACT A research study entitled, “A case-control study to identify the biopsychosocial risk factors that may contribute to Intellectual Disability among children attending selected special schools of Udupi District, Karnataka”, was conducted by Ms Henita Joshna Menezes in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Master of Science in Nursing at Manipal College of Nursing Manipal, MAHE, manipal. The objective of the study was to identify the biopsychosocial risk factors that may contribute to Intellectual Disability. The conceptual framework of this study was based on Kaoru Ishikawa’s fishbone model 1968. A quantitative study with case-control design was adopted for the study. The ‘Convenient Sampling Technique’ was used. The data collection tools used were: Demographic Proforma and semi - structured questionnaire on bio psychosocial factors that might lead to Intellectual Disability. Content validity was established by giving the tools to five experts for review and feedback. All the required permissions were sought, including the approval from Institutional Ethical Clearance Committee before the commencement of the study. The study was conducted during the month of January 2018 in schools and homes. Pretesting was done among five mothers of children from Karunya Special School, Ambalpady and Reliability was done among twenty mothers of children from Chethana Special School, Karkala. All the tools were found to be reliable. Abstract Manipal College of Nursing Manipal vi The pilot study was conducted among ten mothers of children from Vijetha Residential School, Karkala and ten mothers of children from Catholic Aided Higher Primary School, Pamboor and it was found to be feasible. The gathered data was coded and summarized in a master data sheet and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 version. Both the descriptive and inferential statistics were used for identifying the results. Study revealed that, mothers who had taken drugs during pregnancy (OR=4.529, 95% CI, 1.226-16.728, p=0.015), children with delayed cry soon after delivery (OR=3.203, 95% CI, 1.323-7.755, p=0.008), low birth weight babies (OR=3.000, 95% CI, 1.234-7.295, p=0.013) and mothers who faced problems during pregnancy (OR=4.944, 95% CI, 1.033-23.657, p=0.056). The post-natal factor mainly involving children who had head trauma (OR=6.882, 95% CI, 1.488-31.843, p=0.009), complications leading to NICU admission soon after delivery (OR=4.672, 95% CI, 1.649-13.238, p=0.002) and social factor such as family facing financial problems during delivery (OR=2.825, 95% CI, 1.243-6.417, p=0.011), were the main risk factors that might have contributed to Intellectual Disability in children. Study concludes that, Intellectual Disability in children may be due to various factors such as biological i.e., prenatal, during delivery, postnatal and possibly psychological factors as well as social factors. Controlling these factors has very significant implications for preventive strategies in maternal and child health programs world-wide.

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