Date of Award

Winter 8-1-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

M.Sc. Nursing


Department of Child Health (Paeditric) Nursing

First Advisor

Mrs Anjalin D’Souza

Second Advisor

Dr Malathi G Nayak


ABSTRACT The study titled “A study to assess the knowledge, perception, psychosocial preparedness for menarche and the problems experienced by the adolescent girls in selected schools of Udupi district” was carried out by Mrs Charmaine Crystal Salins, in partial fulfilment of the award of Master’s degree in Nursing, at Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal.

Objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge of adolescent girls on menarche, assess the perception of adolescent girls towards menarche, determine the psycho social preparedness of adolescent girls for menarche, find the problems faced by the adolescent girls who had attained menarche, find the association between knowledge of adolescent girls towards menarche with selected demographic variables, find the association between perception of adolescent girls towards menarche with selected demographic variables.

The conceptual frame work for the study was based on Irwin Rosenstock health belief model and personal health behaviour model. In order to achieve the objective, a quantitative approach with descriptive survey design was adopted for the research study. Purposive sampling method was the sampling technique used to collect the data. For generating necessary data, the following tools were used: demographic proforma, structured knowledge questionnaire and rating scale on perception and psychosocial preparedness and tool on problems experienced. The tools developed by the researcher were validated, pretested and reliability were established. The pilot study was conducted among 22 adolescents. It was found feasible. All the required permissions were sought, including the approval from Ethics committee. Informed consent was also obtained from the adolescents.

The study included 200 adolescents from nine higher primary schools of Udupi District. Knowledge, perception, psychosocial preparedness and health problems experienced by the adolescents were assessed by using structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used on the basis of objectives and hypotheses of the study.

The result shows that most of the adolescents 90 (45.8%) were in the age group 12 years, and 66% were studying in 7th standard. Majority of the adolescents 147 (73.5%) belonged to nuclear family. Among the total adolescents, 56.5% were first born. Mothers were the major source of information on menstruation for majority of adolescents i.e.170 (85%). Majority of the adolescents 94 (47%) had attained menarche at the age of 12 years.

The present study revealed that the majority of the adolescents 176 (88%) had average knowledge on menstruation, whereas 21(10.5%) had good knowledge on menstruation and 3 (1.5%) had poor knowledge on menstruation.

With regard to perception, majority of the adolescents, i.e. 191 (95.5%) had negative perception and nine (4.5%) had positive perception towards menarche and 105 (52.5%) were well prepared for menarche whereas, 95 (47.5%) were poorly prepared for menarche. Majority of the adolescents 150 (75%) experienced abdominal pain during menstruation, 120 (60%) often felt tired during menstruation, 147 (73.5%) had heavy bleeding, where 73 (36.5%) had to change their pads every 4 hourly and 131 (65.5%) of them had white discharge few days before menstruation. The study results showed that there was statistically significant association between knowledge on menstruation and age at menarche (2 = 9.916, p = .042) and there was statistically significant association between perception of adolescent girls towards menarche with type of family (2= 15.042, p= .001), age at menarche (2 =8.132, p= 0.017).

Thus the study concluded that 90 (45.8%) were in the age group 12 years. Mothers were the main informants. The study showed that there was a substantial lacuna in the knowledge about menstruation among adolescent girls. Social prohibitions and restrictions from attaining religious rituals have created a negative impact on adolescents and have blocked the access to the right kind of information. The common problems experienced by the adolescents during menstruation were abdominal pain, back pain, tiredness, heavy bleeding during menstruation and white discharge few days before the onset of menstruation.

Included in

Nursing Commons