Date of Award
Department of Psychiatric (Mental Health) Nursing
Dr Tessy Treesa Jose
Mr. Renjulal Yesodharan
ABSTRACT The study titled, “A study on gender stereotype, self-esteem and their determinants among adolescents of selected English medium secondary schools of Udupi district.” was carried out by Ms Bhanu Chhetri Karki, in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science in Nursing at Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal.
Objectives of the study were to assess the gender stereotype among the adolescents using the Children‟s Sex Role Inventory (CSRI), to measure the self- esteem of the adolescent using the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale and to find out the determinants of gender stereotype among the adolescents as measured by Gender Stereotype and Self-esteem Determinants Inventory.
The conceptual framework of the study was based on “Blum‟s conceptual framework for healthy early adolescence: a platform for research”. Simple random sampling was used to select the block and school, and purposive sampling to select the samples. The study was conducted among 517 adolescents in selected English- medium schools of Udupi District. Quantitative approach with explorative survey design was used to conduct the study.
Data were collected from the adolescents by administering the Children‟s Sex Role Inventory (CSRI) to identify the gender role, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale for measuring the level of Self-esteem and Gender Stereotype and self-esteem Determinants Inventory to determine the factors of gender stereotype among the adolescents. According to the demographic characteristics, most of the adolescents i.e. 292 (56.48%) belong to the age group of 13-14 years. Among 517 participants 283 (54.74%) were male, and 419 (81.04%) follows Hindu religion. Concerning the area of residence most of the adolescents i.e. 219 (42.36%) were residing in rural areas. Data on type of family showed that 326 (63.06%) participant belonged to the nuclear family. Most of their fathers, i.e., 163 (31.53%) and mothers, i.e., 170 (32.88%) had a senior secondary education. Many of their fathers, i.e., 228 (44.10%), were skilled workers and mothers i.e. 411 (79.50%) were home makers. Among 517 adolescents 152 (29.40%) secured „A‟ grade and 141 (27.27%) secured A+ in their previous examination. The majority of the adolescents i.e. 389 (75.24%) were staying with their parents in their own house. Most of the adolescents, i.e., 217(41.97%) had a male sibling, and 159 (30.75 %) had a female sibling.
The CSRI findings showed that among 517 participants 195 (37.72%) were
„Androgyny‟, 150 (29.01%) were „undifferentiated‟, and 172 (37.72%) were gender
stereotyped contributed together by 91 (52.91%) „Masculine‟ and 81 (47.09%)
„Feminine‟ individuals. Among 91 „Masculine‟ individuals, 15 (16.48%) were females while 28 (34.75%) among 81 Feminine‟ participants were male adolescents.
The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale findings showed that majority of the adolescent‟s self-esteem was found on the lower side 316 (61.12%) while only 201(38.88%) adolescents were found to have a high self-esteem. Female adolescents had a higher mean self-esteem score (18.46 ± 3.145) compared to the male adolescents (17 ± 2.955). One way ANOVA test (F=6.2, p=0.01) along with a post- hoc analysis highlighted the significant difference in the mean self-esteem score among the gender roles. A statistically significant difference (1.403, CI- 0.55- 2.25) exists between means self-esteem score of Androgyny‟ (18.46 ± 3.145) and Undifferentiated individual (17.05± 2.69). A significant association was observed between gender role and self-esteem Chi-square value (Ӽ2(3) = 22.368 and p<0.001). A significant association was found between the self-esteem and religion (Ӽ2(2)=7.124, p=0.028) as well as the type of siblings (Ӽ2(3) =8.877, p=0.031). Also, Significant association was found between gender roles and the gender (Ӽ2(9) =45.080, p=0.001), the area of residence (Ӽ2(6) =413.479, p=0.036) and Father's education qualification (Ӽ2(15) =28.88, p=0.022). Ten determinants of gender stereotype and self-esteem were extracted by performing factor analysis on the data collected using the Gender stereotype and Self- esteem Determinants Inventory using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) where the Eigen value was greater than 1.
Based on the present study, the following recommendations have been made.
● The similar study can be replicated in a larger population of adolescents both from urban and rural areas. ● To training program can be conducted to strengthen the adolescents‟ self-esteem by including more sessions and follow up. ● A special sensitization program can be organized for parents and teachers to make them aware of the ill effects of stereotyping on the children‟s mental health.
The findings of this study concluded that the adolescents who conform to both
„Androgyny‟ gender role have high self-esteem comparing with other gender roles.
KARKI, BHANU CHHETRI, "A study on gender stereotype, self-esteem and their determinants among adolescents of selected English medium secondary school of Udupi district." (2017). Manipal College of Nursing, Manipal Theses and Dissertations. 92.