Date of Award

Summer 10-1-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

Bachelor of Occupational Therapy


Department of Occupational Therapy

First Advisor

Arnab Bhoumik

Second Advisor

Bletty Raj, Advaita

Third Advisor

Elvisia D. Almeida


Introduction: Hand therapy focuses on rehabilitating upper-extremity orthopaedic conditions to restore maximum participation and minimizes further infirmities (Aglen et al., 2019; Goggins & Williams, 2019). Occupations are an extremely important part of human life and the participation is central to a person’s health, sense of well-being and life satisfaction (Chen & Chippendale, 2018). Occupation based Intervention (OBI) has always benefitted client. It includes occupation as means and ends (Zamir et al., 2016). Occupation as means refers to occupations and purposeful tasks as a remediation agent to improve a client’s physical function (Zamir et al., 2016). Occupation as an end refers to the ultimate goal of occupational therapy intervention, which is to restore, improve, and enable clients to engage in purposeful occupations (Zamir et al., 2016). Clients highly valued using occupation as means during their therapy (Berlet & Kaskutas, 2020). The ultimate goal is to enhance the client’s maximum level of functioning (Robinson et al., 2016).Aim: To explore the extent to which occupations have been used as means and ends in hand therapy literature. Methods & Analysis: The scoping review was planned as follows; Stage 1: Identifying the research question Research Question: In the existing literature how occupations have been used as means and as ends in hand therapy? Stage 2: Searching for Relevant Studies and Study Selection based on Inclusion criteria of full text English articles published between December 2006 to October 2020 and Exclusion criteria of the articles primarily focused on the hand therapy intervention based on the therapeutic exercises and related concepts like splinting. Result & Conclusion: Occupations dressing and feeding, meal preparations, clean-up, home establishment and management (laundry), leisure- leisure participation (Gardening) were used as means. And occupations like showering, dressing, feeding, IADL’s e.g. meal preparation and clean-up (cooking), work- Job performance (Computer use and handling tools) were used as ends in the articles. There is limited evidence explaining OBI related to the Indian context, and to what extent Occupations can be used in OBI especially in hand therapy.