Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences




Introduction: Tramadol is an effective analgesic used in the treatment of mild to severe pains, but unregulated use may cause deleterious effects on the reproductive system of males. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate Method: the effect of graded doses and duration of Tramadol on sperm indices and histomorphology of testes in male rabbits. This is an experimental study of 24 male rabbits, divided into eight groups of three rabbits in each group. The rabbits were administered 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg daily doses of Tramadol intramuscularly for 15 and 30 days while F and G received intramuscular Tramadol of 10 and 20 mg/kg daily respectively for 15 days and were left to recover for 15 days. Group H received physiological saline only and served as the control group. Rabbits in each group were sacrificed and the caudal epididymis was excised from the rabbits for semen analysis. The left testes were removed for histological examinations. The sperm motility, viability, and count were significantly lower (p



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