Role of fluorescence in situ hybridization in detecting mycobacterium avium complex presenting as fever in treatment failure HIV

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Journal of Clinical Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Diseases


A 49-year-old male HIV positive patient on treatment failure presented with complaints of fever and dysphagia of three weeks duration and later on developed cervical lymphadenopathy along with severe vomiting and abdominal pain. Liver function tests were found to be worsening with severe drop in CD4 counts. An extensive workup for pyrexia was done. FNAC and biopsy of lymph node showed features suggestive of granulomatous lymphadenitis. CBNAAT of the lymph node aspirate was negative for MTB. Blood culture and lymph node cultures were negative for Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC). MAC was however, finally detected and reported positive on Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) of the cervical lymph node aspirate. Prompt treatment for MAC was initiated with Ethambutol 800 mg OD and Azithromycin 500 mg OD following which fever spikes subsided and lymph node resolved. The Patient's condition gradually improved and was discharged shortly with a good recovery on subsequent follow ups. Fever is one of the common symptoms in patients with MAC infection. Some other clinical manifestations include weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic evaluation should be aggressive. As there is a high risk for MAC infection in advanced HIV cases with poor HAART compliance, FISH can be a valuable and effective diagnostic tool in early detection and treatment of MAC.



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