Evaluation of cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of a new class of silver citrate-based compounds as endodontic irrigants

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In the present study, the cytotoxicity and the antimicrobial activity of two silver citrate-based irrigant solutions were investigated. Cytotoxicity of various concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%) of both solutions (BioAKT and BioAKT Endo) was assessed on L-929 mouse fibroblasts using the MTT assay. For the quantitative analysis of components, an infrared (I.R.) spectroscopy was performed. The minimum inhibitory and minimal bactericidal concentrations (M.I.C. and M.B.C., respectively) were ascertained on Enterococcus faecalis strain ATCC 4083. For biofilm susceptibility after treatment with the irrigating agent, a minimum biofilm eradication concentration (M.B.E.C.) and confocal laser scanning microscope (C.L.S.M.) assays were performed. Quantification of E. faecalis cell biomass and percentage of live and dead cells in the biomass was appraised. Normality of data was analyzed using the D’Agostino & Pearson’s test and the Shapiro–Wilk test. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s test. Both silver citrate solutions showed mouse fibroblasts viability >70% when diluted to 0.25% and 0.5%. Conversely, at higher concentrations, they were extremely cytotoxic. F.T.-IR spectroscopy measurements of both liquids showed the same spectra, indicating similar chemical characteristics. No substantial contrast in antimicrobial activity was observed among the two silver citrate solutions by using broth microdilution methods, biofilm susceptibility (MBEC-HTP device), and biomass screening using confocal laser scanning microscopy (C.L.S.M.) technique. Both solutions, used as root canal irrigants, exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and low cytocompatibility at dilutions greater than 0.5%.

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