Effect of psychiatric illness on oral tissue, gingival and periodontal health among non-institutionalized psychiatric patients of Mangalore, India

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Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy


Background: Psychiatric illness makes overall health weaker. Different types of psychiatric illness cause various oral changes. Thus this study aimed at assessing the oral health parameters among non-institutionalized psychiatric patients of private set up. Material and method: In this cross-sectional study 250 psychiatric patients were examined. The parameters related to psychiatric illness were documented using their medical records. A structured questionnaire including demographic details, oral hygiene practices, habits, occupation, and income was used. A thorough full mouth examination was carried out to assess the oral soft tissue changes, dryness of oral cavity, plaque, gingival and periodontal status. Results: The age of the participants ranged from 21years to 70 years with a mean age of 36 years. The majority of participants were suffering from psychiatric illness like depression, schizophrenia, mood disorders and mania respectively. Majority of the participants suffering from psychiatric illness were homemakers. This study showed a link between low income population to psychiatric illness. The participants also reported oral dryness which may be partly due to psychiatric medications. Gingival and plaque index scores showed statistically significant association to presence of mental psychiatric illness. Conclusion: Subjects with psychiatric illness were having poor oral health. Dental examination should be incorporated as a part general examination. Policymakers need to consider optimal methods of intervention for mental disorders among low-income individuals. This group of patients who are making major part of the population of the society should be attended with utmost care.

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