Characterization of primary cilia features reveal cell-type specific variability in in vitro models of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation

Document Type


Publication Title



Primary cilia are non-motile sensory antennae present on most vertebrate cell surfaces. They serve to transduce and integrate diverse external stimuli into functional cellular responses vital for development, differentiation and homeostasis. Ciliary characteristics, such as length, structure and frequency are often tailored to distinct differentiated cell states. Primary cilia are present on a variety of skeletal cell-types and facilitate the assimilation of sensory cues to direct skeletal development and repair. However, there is limited knowledge of ciliary variation in response to the activation of distinct differentiation cascades in different skeletal cell-types. C3H10T1/2, MC3T3-E1 and ATDC5 cells are mesenchymal stem cells, preosteoblast and prechondrocyte cell-lines, respectively. They are commonly employed in numerous in vitro studies, investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation, skeletal disease and repair. Here we sought to evaluate the primary cilia length and frequencies during osteogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1 and chondrogenic differentiation in ATDC5 cells, over a period of 21 days. Our data inform on the presence of stable cilia to orchestrate signaling and dynamic alterations in their features during extended periods of differentiation. Taken together with existing literature these findings reflect the occurrence of not only lineage but cell-type specific variation in ciliary attributes during differentiation. These results extend our current knowledge, shining light on the variabilities in primary cilia features correlated with distinct differentiated cell phenotypes. It may have broader implications in studies using these cell-lines to explore cilia dependent cellular processes and treatment modalities for skeletal disorders centered on cilia modulation.



Publication Date


This document is currently not available here.