Advances in nonlinear optical microscopy techniques for in vivo and in vitro neuroimaging

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Biophysical Reviews


Understanding the mechanism of the brain via optical microscopy is one of the challenges in neuroimaging, considering the complex structures. Advanced neuroimaging techniques provide a more comprehensive insight into patho-mechanisms of brain disorders, which is useful in the early diagnosis of the pathological and physiological changes associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Recent advances in optical microscopy techniques have evolved powerful tools to overcome scattering of light and provide improved in vivo neuroimaging with sub-cellular resolution, endogenous contrast specificity, pinhole less optical sectioning capability, high penetration depth, and so on. The following article reviews the developments in various optical imaging techniques including two-photon and three-photon fluorescence, second-harmonic generation, third-harmonic generation, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, and stimulated Raman scattering in neuroimaging. We have outlined the potentials and drawbacks of these techniques and their possible applications in the investigation of neurodegenerative diseases.

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