Proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of shammah induced signaling in oral keratinocytes

Document Type


Publication Title

Scientific Reports


Shammah is a smokeless tobacco product often mixed with lime, ash, black pepper and flavorings. Exposure to shammah has been linked with dental diseases and oral squamous cell carcinoma. There is limited literature on the prevalence of shammah and its role in pathobiology of oral cancer. In this study, we developed a cellular model to understand the effect of chronic shammah exposure on oral keratinocytes. Chronic exposure to shammah resulted in increased proliferation and invasiveness of non-transformed oral keratinocytes. Quantitative proteomics of shammah treated cells compared to untreated cells led to quantification of 4712 proteins of which 402 were found to be significantly altered. In addition, phosphoproteomics analysis of shammah treated cells compared to untreated revealed hyperphosphorylation of 36 proteins and hypophosphorylation of 83 proteins (twofold, p-value ≤ 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis of significantly altered proteins showed enrichment of proteins involved in extracellular matrix interactions, necroptosis and peroxisome mediated fatty acid oxidation. Kinase-Substrate Enrichment Analysis showed significant increase in activity of kinases such as ROCK1, RAF1, PRKCE and HIPK2 in shammah treated cells. These results provide better understanding of how shammah transforms non-neoplastic cells and warrants additional studies that may assist in improved early diagnosis and treatment of shammah induced oral cancer.



Publication Date


This document is currently not available here.