Mesenchymal Stem Cell–Derived Exosomes: A Potential Therapeutic Avenue in Knee Osteoarthritis

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Knee osteoarthritis is the leading cause of functional disability in adults. The goals of knee osteoarthritis management are directed toward symptomatic pain relief along with the attainment of the functional quality of life. The treatment strategy ranges from conservative to surgical management with reparative and restorative techniques. The emergence of cell-based therapies has paved the way for the usage of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cartilage disorders. Currently, global researchers are keen on their research on nanomedicine and targeted drug delivery. MSC-derived exosomes act as a directed therapy to halt the disease progression and to provide a pain-free range of movements with increased quality of cartilage on regeneration. International Society for Extracellular Vesicles and the European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease have formed guidelines to foster the use of the growing therapeutic potential of exosomal therapy in osteoarthritis. Although regenerative therapies with MSC are being seen to hold a future in the management of osteoarthritis, extracellular vesicle–based technology holds the key to unlock the potential toward knee preservation and regeneration. The intricate composition and uncertain functioning of exosomes are inquisitive facets warranting further exploration.

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