Factors Associated With Neonatal Pneumonia and its Mortality in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Indian Pediatrics


Background: Neonatal pneumonia remains a significant contributor to infant mortality in India and responsible for increased prevalence of infant deaths globally. Objective: To identify risk factors associated with neonatal pneumonia and its mortality in India. Study design: A systematic review was conducted including both analytic study designs and descriptive study designs, which reported a quantitative analysis of factors associated with all the three types of pneumonia among neonates. The search was conducted from August to December, 2016 on the following databases; CINAHL, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest, SCOPUS, Web of Science, WHO IMSEAR and IndMED. The search was restricted to Indian setting. Participants: The population of interest was neonates. Outcomes: The outcome measures included risk factors for incidences and mortality predictors of neonatal pneumonia. These could be related to neonate, maternal and pregnancy, caregiver, family, environment, healthcare system, iatrogenic and others. Results: A total of three studies were included. For risk factors, two studies on ventilator-associated pneumonia were included with 194 neonates; whereas for mortality predictors, only one study with 150 neonates diagnosed with pneumonia was included. 11 risk factors were identified from two studies: duration of mechanical ventilation, postnatal age, birth weight, prematurity, sex of the neonate, length of stay in NICU, primary diagnosis, gestational age, number of re-intubation, birth asphyxia, and use of nasogastric tube. Metaanalysis with random-effects model was possible only for prematurity (<37 week) and very low birth weight (<1500 g) and very low birth weight was found to be significant (OR 5.61; 95% CI 1.76, 17.90). A single study was included on predictors of mortality. Mean alveolar arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO2) >250 mm Hg was found to be the single most significant predictor of mortality due to pneumonia in neonates. Conclusion: The study found scant evidence from India on risk factors of neonatal pneumonia other than ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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