Clinical and genetic spectrum of 104 Indian families with central nervous system white matter abnormalities

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Clinical Genetics


Genetic disorders with predominant central nervous system white matter abnormalities (CNS WMAs), also called leukodystrophies, are heterogeneous entities. We ascertained 117 individuals with CNS WMAs from 104 unrelated families. Targeted genetic testing was carried out in 16 families and 13 of them received a diagnosis. Chromosomal microarray (CMA) was performed for three families and one received a diagnosis. Mendeliome sequencing was used for testing 11 families and all received a diagnosis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 80 families and was diagnostic in 52 (65%). Singleton WES was diagnostic for 50/75 (66.67%) families. Overall, genetic diagnoses were obtained in 77 families (74.03%). Twenty-two of 47 distinct disorders observed in this cohort have not been reported in Indian individuals previously. Notably, disorders of nuclear mitochondrial pathology were most frequent (9 disorders in 20 families). Thirty-seven of 75 (49.33%) disease-causing variants are novel. To sum up, the present cohort describes the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of genetic disorders with CNS WMAs in our population. It demonstrates WES, especially singleton WES, as an efficient tool in the diagnosis of these heterogeneous entities. It also highlights possible founder events and recurrent disease-causing variants in our population and their implications on the testing strategy.

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