Profile of Helicobacter pylori cagA & vacA genotypes and its association with the spectrum of gastroduodenal disease

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Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology


Purpose: Globally, H. pylori virulence factors cagA and vacA genotypes and its variation is leading to the austere form of the gastroduodenal disease. Our objectives were to detect H. pylori in dyspeptic patients from biopsy samples with the validation of the various existing diagnostic tools and to screen the cagA, vacA genotypes profile from biopsy specimens and how it impacts in progression of gastroduodenal disease in southern India. Methods: 374 patients who attended endoscopy unit at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal with their consent obtained their biopsies. H. pylori were detected by HPE, Culture, RUT and PCR and its virulence gene were patterned with PCR. Results: The positive rate of H. pylori by HPE, RUT, Culture and PCR were 51.33%, 47.1%, 32.4% and 50.3% respectively and comparison by Bayesian LCMs analysis showed PCR is superior among them. The frequency of H. pylori virulence gene viz cagPAI (cagA) were 80.9%, and vacA alleles-s1m1 (42%), s1m2 (33%) and s2m2 (25%) genotypes by PCR respectively. Four combinations of cagA/vacA genotypes were noted, majority of strains harboured cagA+/vacA s1m1 genotypes (42.6%), interestingly this hyper-virulent strain more frequently seen in severe gastroduodenal disease whereas cagPAI negative strains as well as cagA−/vacA s2m2 combinations (19.1%) are seen most commonly in functional dyspepsia cases and depicted significant association by Chi-square test. Conclusions: This study validates and compares the existing diagnostic methods for detecting H. pylori in biopsies. Also, it reveals some pattern of virulence gene combination will play a vital role in disease progression.

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