Knee Implant Identification by Fine-Tuning Deep Learning Models

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Indian Journal of Orthopaedics


Background: Identification of implant model from primary knee arthroplasty in pre-op planning of revision surgery is a challenging task with added delay. The direct impact of this inability to identify the implants in time leads to the increase in complexity in surgery. Deep learning in the medical field for diagnosis has shown promising results in getting better with every iteration. This study aims to find an optimal solution for the problem of identification of make and model of knee arthroplasty prosthesis using automated deep learning models. Methods: Deep learning algorithms were used to classify knee arthroplasty implant models. The training, validation and test comprised of 1078 radiographs with a total of 6 knee arthroplasty implant models with anterior–posterior (AP) and lateral views. The performance of the model was calculated using accuracy, sensitivity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), which were compared against multiple models trained for comparative in-depth analysis with saliency maps for visualization. Results: After training for a total of 30 epochs on all 6 models, the model performing the best obtained an accuracy of 96.38%, the sensitivity of 97.2% and AUC of 0.985 on an external testing dataset consisting of 162 radiographs. The best performing model correctly and uniquely identified the implants which could be visualized using saliency maps. Conclusion: Deep learning models can be used to differentiate between 6 knee arthroplasty implant models. Saliency maps give us a better understanding of which regions the model is focusing on while predicting the results.

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