Interplay between hepatitis E virus and host cell pattern recognition receptors

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) usually causes self-limiting acute hepatitis, but the disease can be-come chronic in immunocompromised individuals. HEV infection in pregnant women is reported to cause up to 30% mortality, especially in the third trimester. Additionally, extrahepatic manifestations like neuronal and renal diseases and pancreatitis are also reported during the course of HEV infection. The mechanism of HEV pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Innate immunity is the first line of defense triggered within minutes to hours after the first pathogenic insult. Growing evidence based on reverse genetics systems, in vitro cell culture models, and representative studies in animal models including non-human primates, has implicated the role of the host’s innate immune response during HEV infection. HEV persists in presence of interferons (IFNs) plausibly by evading cellular antiviral defense. This review summarizes our current understanding of recognizing HEV-associated molecular patterns by host cell Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) in eliciting innate immune response during HEV infection as well as mechanisms of virus-mediated immune evasion.



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