Effects of Cognitive Versus Mind-Motor Training on Cognition and Functional Skills in the Community-Dwelling Older Adults

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Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine


Background: There is a decline in cognitive and functional skills in older adults. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of cognitive and mind-motor training (MMT) on cognition and functional skills in a community-dwelling sample of older adults. Methods: In this observer-blinded randomized clinical trial, 40 older adults with medical stability, ability to comprehend and respond to simple verbal instructions, no diagnosed psychological disorders, absence of severe visual and hearing problems, the capacity to walk independently, and a score of more than 46 in Berg Balance Scale were included. They were randomly allocated into cognitive or MMT groups. Cognitive training (CT) was practiced with activities for memory and attention, using paper–pencil tasks. MMT was practiced using a simple, indoor based square-stepping exercise. They practiced one-hour of training per day, three days a week, for eight weeks. Results: General linear model analysis showed that the time by groups was not statistically significant. The mean (standard deviation) scores in General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition Scale and Hindi Mental State Examination improved significantly (P < 0.001) following MMT [1.75 (1.29); 2.4 (1.34)] and CT [1.5 (1.36); 2.7 (0.99)]. The functional skills measured using Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale revealed beneficial changes for both the groups. None of the outcomes were statistically significant between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Both cognitive and MMTs showed similar practice effects on cognition and functional skills in community-dwelling older adults.

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