Biomarkers for Antiplatelet Therapies in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Clinical Review

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Frontiers in Neurology


Stroke is one of the world's leading causes of disability and death. Antiplatelet agents are administered to acute ischemic stroke patients as secondary prevention. Clopidogrel involves biotransformation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes into an active metabolite, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can influence the efficacy of this biotransformation. Despite the therapeutic advantages of aspirin, there is significant inter-individual heterogeneity in response to this antiplatelet drug. In this clinical review, the recent advances in the biomarkers of antiplatelet agents in acute ischemic stroke are discussed. The studies reviewed herein highlight the clinical relevance of antiplatelet resistance, pharmacotherapy of antiplatelet agents predicting drug response, strategies for identifying aspirin resistance, pharmacogenetic variants of antiplatelet agents, miRNAs, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) as biomarkers toward the personalized approach in the management of acute ischemic stroke. The precise pathways contributing to antiplatelet resistance are not very well known but are presumably multi-factorial. It is essential to understand the clinical relevance of clopidogrel and aspirin-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) as potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Prasugrel is a next-generation antiplatelet agent that prevents ADP-platelet activation by binding irreversibly to P2Y12 receptor. There are sporadic reports of prasugrel resistance and polymorphisms in the Platelet endothelial aggregation receptor-1 (PEAR1) that may contribute to a change in the pharmacodynamics response. Ticagrelor, a direct-acting P2Y12-receptor antagonist, is easily absorbed and partly metabolized to major AR-C124910XX metabolite (ARC). Ticagrelor's primary active metabolite, ARC124910XX (ARC), is formed via the most abundant hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5. The integration of specific biomarkers, genotype as well as phenotype-related data in antiplatelet therapy stratification in patients with acute ischemic stroke will be of great clinical significance and could be used as a guiding tool for more effective, personalized therapy.



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