Association of Kidney Stone Disease (KSD) with Primary Gastrointestinal Surgery: a Systematic Review over Last 2 Decades

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Current Urology Reports


Purpose of review: We aim to provide an up-to-date literature review to further characterise the association of kidney stone disease (KSD) with gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. As KSD is associated with significant morbidity, it is important to quantify and qualify this association to provide better care and management for the patient subgroup. Objective: To perform a systematic review of the existing literature to evaluate the association of KSD following GI surgery. Methods: A literature search was performed of the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar, Key Urology, Uptodate and Cochrane Trials from January 2000 to June 2020. Recent Findings: A total of 106 articles were identified, and after screening for titles, abstracts and full articles, 12 full papers were included. This involved a total of 9299 patients who underwent primary GI surgery. Over a mean follow-up period of 5.4 years (range: 1–14.4 years), 819 (8.8%) developed KSD, varying from 1.2 to 83% across studies. The mean time to stone formation was approximately 3 years (range: 0.5–9 years). In the 4 studies that reported on the management of KSD (n = 427), 38.6% went on to have urological intervention. Summary: There is a high incidence of KSD following primary GI surgery, and after a mean follow-up of 3 years, around 9% of patients developed KSD. While the GI surgery was done for obesity, inflammatory bowel disease or cancer, the risk of KSD should be kept in mind during follow-up, and prompt urology involvement with metabolic assessment, medical and or surgical management offered as applicable.



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