Metabolic syndrome risk assessment among adults in Udupi District, Karnataka
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health
Background: It is estimated that around 20–25% of world's adult population have metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the prevalence is also high among south Asians and Indians and about one third of the urban population in large cities has varying degrees of Metabolic Syndrome. Objectives: To study the prevalence among adults who are at risk of metabolic syndrome, gender difference of the same. To study the association of socio-demographic factors, family history and personal history, biochemical parameters, lifestyle addictions, dietary pattern and adequacy with the risk of metabolic syndrome. Methodology: A descriptive study was undertaken in Udupi District, Karnataka, India in which a total of 420 adults (aged >20 years) from the general population were studied. Anthropometric measurement like height, weight, waist circumference, BMI waist hip ratio (WHR) was measured. Biochemical parameters like Blood Pressure, Fasting Glucose level, Post Prandial, HDL, LDL, TG, Triglyceride level from the existing records was recorded. Lifestyle addictions/habits like smoking, alcohol, Tobacco chewing and Drugs was assessed. Dietary assessment was done using 24-h recall in the diet software. Chi-square test, Correlation analysis and Paired t-test were used when appropriate using SPSS package. Results and discussion: On the basis of metabolic syndrome risk assessment score of biochemical parameters, 50% of the samples are at moderate/at risk category, while 46.4% of the samples are at low/no risk and 3.6% of the samples showed the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. On the basis of lifestyle addiction, 73.1% of the samples were at moderate risk of metabolic syndrome while 13.8% were at high risk and 13.1% were at no/low risk of metabolic syndrome. This explains that more than 50% of the samples are at moderate risk group. The statistically significant risk factor for metabolic syndrome were females (p = 0.000), advancing age (p < 0.001, r = 0.270**), low SES class (p < 0.001,r = −0.129**), high Body mass index (BMI) waist hip ratio (WHR) waist circumference(WC) (p < 0.001,r = 0.340**), (p«0.001,r = 0.423**), (p < 0.001,r = 0.573**), Daily non-vegetarian pattern (p = 0.004) and coconut oil consumed (p < 0.001). Conclusion: With urbanization and economic development, a nutritional transition characterized by improved dietary habits, improvements in socio-economic status and increasingly sedentary lifestyles have been observed which has contributed to the increasing prevalence of risk of metabolic syndrome among the population of Udupi, Karnataka. 5
Pai, Namratha N. and Meenakshi, Garg, "Metabolic syndrome risk assessment among adults in Udupi District, Karnataka" (2020). Open Access Archive. 285.