Integrated proteomic and phosphoproteomics analysis of dkk3 signaling reveals activated kinase in the most aggressive gallbladder cancer

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DKK3 is a secreted protein, which belongs to a family of Wnt antagonists and acts as a potential tumor suppressor in gallbladder cancer. To further understand its tumor suppressor functions, we overexpressed DKK3 in 3 GBC cell lines. We have employed high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass tag (TMT) multiplexing technology along with immobilized metal affinity chromatography to enrich phosphopeptides to check the downstream regulators. In this study, we reported for the first time the alteration in the phosphorylation of 14 kinases upon DKK3 overexpression. In addition, we observed DKK3 induced hyper phosphorylation of 2 phosphatases: PPP1R12A and PTPRA, which have not been reported previously. Canonical pathway analysis of altered molecules indicated differential enrichment of signaling cascades upon DKK3 overexpression in all the 3 cell lines. Protein kinase A signaling, Sirtuin signaling pathway, and Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication were observed to be differentially activated in the GBC cell lines. Our study revealed, DKK3 overexpression has differential effect based on the aggressive behavior of the cell lines. This study expands the understanding of DKK3-mediated signaling events and can be used as a primary factor for understanding the complex nature of this molecule.

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