Fermionic degeneracy and non-local contributions in flag-dipole spinors and mass dimension one fermions

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European Physical Journal C


We construct a mass dimension one fermionic field associated with flag-dipole spinors. These spinors are related to Elko (flag-pole spinors) by a one-parameter matrix transformation Z(z) where z is a complex number. The theory is non-local and non-covariant. While it is possible to obtain a Lorentz-invariant theory via τ-deformation, we choose to study the effects of non-locality and non-covariance. Our motivation for doing so is explained. We show that a fermionic field with | z| ≠ 1 and | z| = 1 are physically equivalent. But for fermionic fields with more than one value of z, their interactions are z-dependent thus introducing an additional fermionic degeneracy that is absent in the Lorentz-invariant theory. We study the fermionic self-interaction and the local U(1) interaction. In the process, we obtained non-local contributions for fermionic self-interaction that have previously been neglected. For the local U(1) theory, the interactions contain time derivatives that renders the interacting density non-commutative at space-like separation. We show that this problem can be resolved by working in the temporal gauge. This issue is also discussed in the context of gravity.



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