Contraceptives utilization and barriers in Karnataka, Southern India: A survey on women residing in slums

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Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health


Background: Population explosion remains a major cause of concern in India. Although, the country became the first to implement a national population control programme in 1952, it is yet to effectively control its population growth. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the utilization and barriers for non-utilization of contraceptives among slum resident married women of Udupi district, Karnataka, India between October 2017 to July 2018 The survey involved 323 married women aged 18–45 years. Data were generated using self-developed and validated questionnaire. Generated data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. Results: The result of the study showed low utilization of contraceptives at 38.7%. Leading barriers for non-utilization are fear of side effects (65.2%), followed by desire for girl/boy child (31.3%), husbands’ disapproval (25.8%), followed by 17.7% no family support (in-laws), lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods (25.3%), and lack of personal interest to use contraceptives (23.2%). The most frequently used method was tubectomy (73.6%). Copper T (14.4%) and male condom (8.0%) were predominant method among the temporary family planning methods used by the study population. Conclusions: The low contraceptive rate might be attributed by fear of side effects, desire for girl/boy child, husbands’ and family (in-law) disapproval, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods and lack of motivation to use. Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the spouse and in-laws might promote contraceptive utilization in slum dwellers.

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