Determinants of metabolic syndrome and 5-year cardiovascular risk estimates among HIV-positive individuals from an Indian tertiary care hospital

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AIDS Research and Treatment


Longer survival due to use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has made human immunodeficiency virus- (HIV-) infected individuals prone to chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Metabolic syndrome (MS), a constellation of risk factors which increase chances of the cardiovascular disease and diabetes, can increase the morbidity and mortality among this population. Hence, the present study was conducted with the objectives of estimating the prevalence and determinants of MS among ART naïve and ART-treated patients and assess their 5-year CVD risk using the reduced version of Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D: A: D) risk prediction model (D: A: D(R)). This hospital-based cross-sectional study included 182 adults aged ≥ 18 years. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-3 (NCEP ATP-3) criteria. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done to identify the factors associated with MS. Prevalence of MS was 40.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 33.0%–47.2%). About 24.7% of the participants had at least a single criterion for MS. Age >45 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.1–4.9, p < 0.018) and body mass index (BMI) > 23 kg/m (AOR = 6.4; 95% CI = 3.1–13.1, p < 0.001) were positively associated with MS, whereas daily consumption of high sugar items was inversely associated (AOR = 0.2; 95% CI = 0.1–0.5, p < 0.001). More than 50% of the participants were found to have moderate or high 5-year CVD risk. Observed prevalence of MS among HIV patients was higher than other studies done in India. Considering a sizeable number of participants to be having moderate to high CVD risk, culturally appropriate lifestyle interventions need to be planned. 2



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