Effect of green fuel and green lubricant with metallic nanoparticles on emissions of HC, CO, NO x, and smoke for a compression ignition engine

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research


The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are imperative from the point of view of protecting the environment by employing sustainable options. Considerable research has been carried out in the transportation sector to meet this objective. Here, the influence is assessed of epoxidised gingelly oil methyl ester biolubricant with alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles on the performance and emissions of a single cylinder 0.66-L capacity direct injection compression ignition engine driven by gingelly B20 biodiesel. Engine tests are carried out with gingelly B20 biodiesel as a fuel, and gingelly methyl ester (B100), epoxidised gingelly methyl ester (B100E), and epoxidised gingelly methyl ester (B100E) mixed with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/w alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles as the lubricant combinations. The results are compared with baseline B20 biodiesel fuel-mineral lubricant operation. The findings indicate that brake thermal efficiency increases by 8.64% for epoxidised gingelly methyl ester (B100E) with 1.0% w/w alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticle biolubricant in comparison to baseline operation. Considerable reductions in emissions are detected; specifically, reductions of 52.4%, 22.0%, 20.0%, and 34.9%, respectively, are observed for CO, NOx, and HC concentrations and smoke opacity for the abovementioned combination as compared to baseline operation. The present work suggests that further research is merited on green fuel-green lubricant combinations. The findings of this study address the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 7 and 13.

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