System and Method for Driver Drowsiness Detection Using Behavioral and Sensor-Based Physiological Measures

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The amount of road accidents caused by driver drowsiness is one of the world’s major challenges. These accidents lead to numerous fatal and non-fatal injuries which impose substantial financial strain on individuals and governments every year. As a result, it is critical to prevent catastrophic accidents and reduce the financial burden on society caused by driver drowsiness. The research community has primarily focused on two approaches to identify driver drowsiness during the last decade: intrusive and non-intrusive. The intrusive approach includes physiological measures, and the non-intrusive approach includes vehicle-based and behavioral measures. In an intrusive approach, sensors are used to detect driver drowsiness by placing them on the driver’s body, whereas in a non-intrusive approach, a camera is used for drowsiness detection by identifying yawning patterns, eyelid movement and head inclination. Noticeably, most research has been conducted in driver drowsiness detection methods using only single measures that failed to produce good outcomes. Furthermore, these measures were only functional in certain conditions. This paper proposes a model that combines the two approaches, non-intrusive and intrusive, to detect driver drowsiness. Behavioral measures as a non-intrusive approach and sensor-based physiological measures as an intrusive approach are combined to detect driver drowsiness. The proposed hybrid model uses AI-based Multi-Task Cascaded Convolutional Neural Networks (MTCNN) as a behavioral measure to recognize the driver’s facial features, and the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) sensor as a physiological measure to collect the skin conductance of the driver that helps to increase the overall accuracy. Furthermore, the model’s efficacy has been computed in a simulated environment. The outcome shows that the proposed hybrid model is capable of identifying the transition from awake to a drowsy state in the driver in all conditions with the efficacy of 91%.



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