Evaluation of antimicrobial therapy and patient adherence in diabetic foot infections

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Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health


Background/objectives: Diabetic foot infections (DFI) are common complications among diabetics. These wounds can cause discomfort and often become infected. In India, currently there is a paucity of data on patient adherence towards antibiotic use in DFIs. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, antimicrobial therapy and its adherence in DFI patients. Method: A prospective observation study (N = 150, newly diagnosed DFI patients) was conducted in Kasturba hospital, Manipal over a period of 6 months. Culture and Sensitivity pattern of the microbes of the patients were obtained from hospital data management system to develop cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Medication adherence was measured by using Culig adherence scale at the first follow-up visit. Results: The most common microbes were Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (23.9%), Klebsiella pneumonia (13.3%) and Escherichia coli (13.3%). Inj. Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid 1.2 gm (28.6%) was highest prescribed empirical therapy in DFI's followed by Inj. Cefuroxime-Sulbactam 2.25 gm (14.6%), Ceftriaxone (0.7%) and Trimethoprim- Sulfamethoxazole (2%) was the most sensitive antibiotic. Cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility pattern shows Chloramphenicol, Colistin, Levofloxacin, Rifampicin has developed resistance towards most of the common organisms in DFI. Statistically significant association was observed between empirical therapy with T.Cefuroxime 625 mg and improved clinical outcomes (p < 0.001). Adherence shows that only 14% of patients have high adherence rates during first follow-up visit. Conclusion: Ceftriaxone and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole are most sensitive antibiotics towards most common organisms in DFIs. T. cefuroxime 625 mg showed statistically significant improvement in clinical outcomes while adherence is very low in most of the DFI patients.

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