Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis of the finger nail in a neonate: A rare case

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BMC Pediatrics


Background: Onychomycosis is extremely rare in neonates, infrequently reported in children and is considered to be exclusively a disease of adults. Case presentation: We, herein report a case of fingernail onychomycosis in a 28-day-old, healthy, male neonate. The child presented with a history of yellowish discoloration of the fingernail of the left hand for one week. The etiological agent was demonstrated both by microscopic examination and culture of nail clippings. The isolate grown on culture was identified as Candida albicans by phenotypic characteristics and by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Antifungal sensitivity testing was performed by broth dilution method as per the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. An oral swab culture of the child also yielded C. albicans with the same antibiogram as the nail isolate. The case was diagnosed as distal and lateral subungual candida onychomycosis of severity index score 22 (severe) and was treated with syrup fluconazole 6 mg/kg body weight/week and 5% amorolfine nail lacquer once/week for three months. After three months of therapy, the patient completely recovered with the development of a healthy nail plate. Conclusions: The case is presented due to its rarity in neonates which, we suppose is the first case report of onychomycosis from Nepal in a 28-day-old neonate. Oral colonization with pathogenic yeasts and finger suckling could be risk factors for neonatal onychomycosis.



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