Temporal changes in air quality during a festival season in Kannur, India

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This study looked at the variation in air quality during the periods of fireworks as assessed from the change in ambient concentrations of air pollutants like particulate matter (PM ), O , and NO for pre-, post-, and Vishu days for four consecutive years in 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 in Kannur, India. Enhanced levels of O , NO , NO, and PM were observed during the intense usage of fireworks. The concentration of metals in PM increased and the percent increase was found to be different for metal traces. A pronounced increase in the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the lower wavelength region of solar radiation reveals the abundance of fine mode particles. The concentrations of O and NO were observed to increase by more than 100% on Vishu day than the control days for the observational period. Simulation using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Master Mechanism photochemical box model indicates a more than 100% enhancement in NO photolysis rates during the fireworks episode, which leads to a 100% increase in the surface ozone production. Observations as well as model simulations indicate that the enhanced photochemical ozone production from NO photolysis is possibly the main driver of ozone production during the Vishu at this site. The air quality index (AQI) revealed the deterioration of air quality at the observational site during the period of Vishu. 10 3 2 3 2 10 10 3 2 2 2



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