Optimization of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid river catfish oil (Pangasius hypothalamus) and waste cooking oil catalyzed by waste chicken egg shells derived catalyst

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SN Applied Sciences


The present study investigated the suitability of the river catfish oil (RCFO) and waste cooking oil (WCO) in transesterification reaction, catalyzed by chicken egg shells derived catalyst. Besides that, a process optimization study was conducted to reveal the effect of molar ratio of oil to methanol and catalyst loading on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). RCFO was extracted from river catfish waste with the recovery of oil of 17.39 wt%. An esterification reaction was carried out prior to transesterification reaction, due to the high percentage of free fatty acid (FFA%) in RCFO (4.93%) and WCO (11.28%). The FFA% was reduced to less than 1% under the optimized parameters of volume percentage of sulfuric acid to oil of 0.5% v/v and volume percentage of methanol to oil of 45% v/v at 60 °C for 2 h. Transesterification results showed that an optimum yield of FAME of 87.77% for RCFO and 96.23% for WCO were obtained under the same optimum conditions of 1:12 of molar ratio of oil to methanol, 1.5 wt% of catalyst loading, 60 min and 60 °C. The chicken egg shells derived catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity due to the high specific surface area of 5.2090 m /g. The physiochemical properties of RCFO biodiesel and WCO biodiesel were characterized and it indeed met the biodiesel standard of ASTM D6751. Hence, both RCFO and WCO were feasible to use as the feedstocks in biodiesel production. 2



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