Post annealing induced manipulation of phase and upconversion luminescence of Cr3+ doped NaYF4:Yb,Er crystals

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RSC Advances


The role of post synthesis annealing at different temperatures (200-600 °C) on the structural as well as luminescence properties of NaY F :Yb ,Er prepared via a coprecipitation method was found to change the structure from a cubic to hexagonal phase with a concomitant increase in upconversion luminescence by 12 times for the green region and 17 times for the red region. Addition of the Cr ions (5-20 mol%) into the host followed by post annealing at 200-600 °C causes that the samples to exhibit phase dependent and upconversion luminescence behavior that depend upon the doping concentration as well as the annealing temperature. The inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy reveals that only 1/600 times of the desired volume of the co-dopant goes to the lattice and it can manifest visible spectral changes in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples. The samples co-doped with Cr ion concentrations of 10-15% and post-annealed at 600 °C were found to have maximum emission with an enhancement factor of 24 for the green region and 33 for the red region. In addition, the laser power dependent studies reveal that even for the power density levels 3.69 W cm to 32.14 W cm , the samples are in the saturation regime and most of the samples investigated here follow a single photon process, and a few samples show a slope value less than 1 for laser power dependent intensity plots. The results show the remarkable promise of controlled tailoring of the properties of upconversion crystals via post annealing and co-doping. 80% 4 17% 3% 3+ 3+ −2 −2

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