Anti-snake venom and methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata: a multipronged strategy to neutralize Naja naja venom acetylcholinesterase and hyaluronidase
The study investigates the ability of methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata (MAP) to supplement polyvalent anti-snake venom (ASV) in inhibiting neurotoxic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ‘spreading factor’ hyaluronidase from Naja naja (N.N) venom. AChE and hyaluronidase activity were measured in 100 or 200 µg of crude venom, respectively, and designated as ‘control’. In Test Group I, enzyme assays were performed immediately after the addition of ASV/MAP/ASV + MAP to the venom. Inhibition of AChE by ASV (100–367 µg) was 12–17%, and of hyaluronidase (22–660 µg) was 33–41%. Under the same conditions, MAP (100–400 µg) inhibited AChE and hyaluronidase to the extent of 17–33% and 17–52%, respectively. When ASV (220 µg) and MAP (100–200 µg) were added together, AChE and hyaluronidase were inhibited to a greater extent from 39–63 to 36–44%, than when either of them was used alone. In Test Group 2, the venom was incubated with ASV/MAP/ASV + MAP for 10–30 min at 37 °C prior to the assay which enhanced AChE inhibition by 6%, 82% and 18% respectively, when compared to Test Group I. Though there was no change in inhibition of hyaluronidase in the presence of ASV, MAP could further increase the extent of inhibition by 27% and ASV + MAP upto 4%. In Test Group III, venom and substrate were incubated for 90 min and hyaluronidase activity was measured after the addition of inhibitors. Here, ASV + MAP caused increased inhibition by 69% compared to ASV alone. The study confirms the ability of phytochemicals in MAP to contribute to a multipronged strategy by supplementing, thereby augmenting the efficacy of ASV.
Nayak, Akshatha Ganesh; Kumar, Nitesh; Shenoy, Smita; and Roche, Maya, "Anti-snake venom and methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata: a multipronged strategy to neutralize Naja naja venom acetylcholinesterase and hyaluronidase" (2020). Open Access Archive. 87.