Document Type

News Article


Earthquake causes a huge loss of life and property compared to other natural disasters. Almost 75% of the casualties due to earthquake were caused due to the collapse of the building and the substantial portion was from the collapse of the unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings. However, masonry is still more popular than other construction materials due to its lower cost and availability of material, and construction of URM does not need any technical rigor. The extent of vulnerability in masonry structures is high due to its brittle nature of the failure. Primarily, URM building is designed to withstand vertical loads, though it has to resist lateral load when earthquake acts upon the structure. A biaxial tension-compression stress is induced, while the structure is being subjected to seismic forces. The combination of these forces leads to the cracking of the wall, due to its low tensile and shear resisting capacity. The in-plane and out-of-plane failures are the most common modes of failure when the URM building is subjected to earthquake loading.


Publication Date

Winter 11-1-2022