Manipal Journal of Medical Sciences


On 30th January 2020, World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), and the first case in the Indian subcontinent was reported. Subsequently, following the directives issued by WHO, the nodal agencies related to health care services in the country like the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW); have been issuing guidelines to public and professionals to enable and equip them to combat and contain the pandemic. Guidelines about health care personnel, necessary infrastructure, personal protective equipment, prophylaxis, access and availability of services, and public safety are being released from time to time based on the evolution of the pandemic in the country. Health care providers and services are bridging the administration and the community for the delivery of services as well as reporting. The community has been affected with loss of jobs, financial crises, lack of transport, and confinement. Lack of awareness and frustration has driven the community to attack the frontline health workers, which has led to legal implications. Even though all the efforts are concerted towards conquering the pandemic, a comprehensive approach can help address the gaps. A five-layered social-ecological model (SEM), from the individual to the policymakers, can conserve the actions taken so far and better equipped to address the evolving pandemic