Manipal Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences



Drug use and illicit trafficking of drugs have been a common problem in both the Netherlands and India since historical times. The Dutch Drug Policy (DDP) model is a combination of both leniency and strict laws whereas the Indian Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS Act) went from being a stringent policy in the past to a more flexible lenient policy in recent years. The objective of the current review was to explore the history of the development of the Netherlands and India's drug regulating policies, followed by the analysis of the policies using the Walt & Gilson health policy triangle.


Official government documents and relevant articles on the DDP and NDPS act were identified for policy analysis. Analysis of the policies showed the effectiveness of the DDP model in controlling the drug problems in the Netherlands at some instances.


The results of the analysis also highlight some gaps in the Indian NDPS act. Based on the analysis of the two policies the review explores the possibilities of implementing similar policy measures adopted under the DDP in the Indian NDPS Act for future reforms. However, the review acknowledges the disparity in culture and political system in the two countries and hence suggests deliberation of the policy measures implemented under the DDP before considering their implementation under the Indian NDPS Act.


The review aimed the direction of future research towards generating more evidence on contextual factors unique to the Dutch and Indian societies and on prevailing circumstances arising due to modern day drug problems for recommendation of evidence-based policy reforms.



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