Manipal Journal of Science and Technology


Protection of Critical Information Infrastructure is a crucial requirement nowadays and requires immediate attention and a lot of prevention activities to avoid any cyber threat to critical IT services. This article aims to give a basic overview of Critical Information Infrastructure (CII) and Critical Sectors such as the Power and Energy Sector, Banking Financial Service and Insurance (BFSI), Telecommunications, Government Services, the Transport Sector, the Health Sector, etc. The consequences of attacks on these sectors have been examined, including their national and international challenges. This article shall also discuss the vulnerabilities of common CII, security controls, emerging trends, threats, and challenges towards protecting CII. Due to the occurrence of numerous cyber-attacks such as Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS), Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs), Phishing attacks, and others against critical systems, CII Protection has become a source of concern for every nation. Since information infrastructures are crucial to critical systems, an attack or disruption may spoil the operation of critical systems. Developed countries such as the USA, UK, Japan, etc., have already created a system; however, due to various additional particular issues and requirements, these solutions are not always appropriate for developing countries. On the other hand, emerging countries' information infrastructures undergo extraordinary expansion and problems. This article also covers the global demand for CII and the parameters for recognizing CII, which is a crucial endeavor. It also examines the existing state and potential development of India's and other countries' information infrastructures.